Level A - Weekly exercise L70_1

ANSWERS

Texte :

A handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a very thin carbon microphone". Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from ships and trains. The race to create truly portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive "generations", starting with the early zeroth-generation services, such as Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, the Improved Mobile Telephone Service. These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, and were very expensive.


The Motorola DynaTAC 8000X. First commercially available handheld cellular mobile phone, 1984.

The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 4.4 lbs (2 kg). The first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in 1979. This was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Several other countries then followed in the early to mid-1980s. These first-generation systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone.

In 1991, the second-generation digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard. This sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators.

Ten years later, in 2001, the third generation was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard. This was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access (HSPA) family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity.

By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications, such as streaming media. Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard, offered in North America by Sprint, and the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.


En vous référant à la présentation du groupe nominal, pour chaque groupe extrait du texte, vous indiquerez sa construction ( P, G ou A) et son noyau.

C'est la construction de 1er niveau dont il s'agit.


Je vous conseille vivement de vous aider de cette fiche indiquant comment vous aider des stop-words.

J'ai souligné et mis en gras les stop-words

Groupes nominaux :

A handheld mobile radio telephone service = A service

the early stages of radio engineering = P stages

a patent for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a very thin carbon microphone" = P patent

Early predecessors of cellular phones = P predecessors

analog radio communications from ships and trains = P communications

truly portable telephone devices = A devices

The advances in mobile telephony = P advances

Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service = G service

De l'analyse de 1er niveau on conclut que le groupe est bien de construction Génitive. Donc le noyau se trouve après 'S. Seulement, après 'S on a un nouveau groupe nominal : Mobile Telephone Service. Il convient donc de faire une analyse de 2ème niveau pour ce groupe qui est lui de construction Adjectivale. C'est donc le dernier élément qui est le noyau : service.


the Improved Mobile Telephone Service = A service

The first handheld cellular mobile phone = A phone

The first commercial automated cellular network = A network

the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark = P launch

the second-generation digital cellular technology = A technology

the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications = P growth

the promise of speed improvements = P promise


On se rend compte à quel point la construction adjectivale est fréquente en anglais plus spécialisé.