About the use of structures

 

Structures found by students (adapted from ...). 1

1.. 1

2.. 1

3.. 1

4.. 2

5.. 2

First seven structures proposed to students.. 2

STRUCTURE N°1.. 2

STRUCTURE N°2.. 3

STRUCTURE N°3.. 3

STRUCTURE N°4.. 4

STRUCTURE N°5.. 5

STRUCTURE N°6.. 5

STRUCTURE N°7.. 6

Examples.. 6

 

Structures found by students (adapted from ...)

Structures 2002/2003

 

"Speaking up for themselves" NEWSWEEK May 13 2002 pp.44-45, by Carla Power

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"Turning women into leaders" Katharine Gebbie, Physics World, March 2002, P.17

 

 

First seven structures proposed to students

STRUCTURE N°1

1) TEXTE :  " What are the main criteria when picking a foreign country as an investment target? Besides the background reasons such as rates of return on the investment and the degree of risk, there are other fundamentals."

2) ORIGINE : Investment international, May 1991, P.15, Swiss bankrolls (bankroll=a supply of money).

3) TRADUCTION :  Quels sont les principaux critères lorsqu'on fait le choix d'un pays étranger pour y investir? Mis à part les raisons de fond telles que la rentabilité de l'investissement et l'importance du risque, il y a d'autres éléments essentiels.

4) STRUCTURE : "What are the main criteria when (V-ING =an action whic implies a choice) ? Besides the background reasons such as (sth) there are other fundamentals."

5) EXEMPLE : 

              A - What are the main criteria when buying a "green" product? Besides the background reasons such as helping to protect nature, there are other fundamentals.

              - "Do you think that man should go back to a purely natural life and reject a civilization that causes pollution?"

              B - What are the main criteria when choosing a political career? Besides the background reasons such as the greed for power or the strong desire to serve one's country, there are other fundamentals.

              - "Should politicians devote themselves entirely to politics and abandon any other kind of professional activity ?"

STRUCTURE N°2

1) TEXTE : They used to be far more likely to throw a Molotov cocktail than put on a show.

2) ORIGINE : "Sensitivity training for Neo-Nazis", NEWSWEEK, April 27, 1992.

3) TRADUCTION : Autrefois, on s'attendait beaucoup plus à les voir jeter un cocktail Molotov qu'organiser un spectacle.

4) STRUCTURE : QN USED TO BE FAR MORE LIKELY TO V (+C) THAN V (+C)

5) EXEMPLE : A couple of decades ago, industrialists used to be far more likely to dispose of their waste in rivers than take care of the environment.

              - "Do you think that man should go back to a purely natural life and reject a civilization that causes pollution?"

STRUCTURE N°3

1) TEXTE : Advocates of European unity often fall prey to the temptation of referring to Europe as "a family".

2) ORIGINE : "European Unity", THE EUROPEAN, May 31st, 1992

3) TRADUCTION : Les partisans de l'unité européenne cèdent souvent à la tentation de comparer l'Europe à une famille

4) STRUCTURE : Advocates of QC often fall prey to the temptation of referring to QC as QC.

5) EXEMPLE :  A - Advocates of ecology often fall prey to the temptation of referring to Nature as everyone's mother.

                                 - " Do you think that man should go back to a purely natural life and reject a civilization that causes pollution? "

                                           B - Advocates of the English language often fall prey to the temptation of referring to English as THE international language.

                                           - " What is your assessment of the spreading international influence of the English language ?"

STRUCTURE N°4

1) TEXTE : And therein lies the challenge facing a united Europe - how to combine a political and economic unity with a cultural and a linguistic diversity, while enhancing mutual tolerance and respect.

2) ORIGINE : "European Unity", THE EUROPEAN, May 31st, 1992

3) TRADUCTION : Et c'est bien là le défi auquel est confrontée une Europe unie: comment combiner une unité politique et économique avec une diversité culturelle et linguistique, tout en renforçant la tolérance et le respect mutuel.

4) STRUCTURE : And therein lies the challenge facing QN - how to V while V-ING

5) EXEMPLE :  A - And therein lies the challenge facing the greens - how to take part in governmental action while remaining true to their basic ideas.

                                           - " Do you think that man should go back to a purely natural life and reject a civilization that causes pollution? "

                                          B - And therein lies the challenge facing today's managers - how to increase the turnover while taking into account the necessary social demands.

                                           - " What personal qualities do you associate with leadership? "

STRUCTURE N°5

1) TEXTE : Managers will also have to abandon their long-cherished notion that a productive employee is an employee that can be seen.

2) ORIGINE : (1992): " THE ETERNAL COFFEE BREAK ", The Economist

3) TRADUCTION : Les dirigeants devront également abandonner le sentiment qu'ils ont depuis longtemps qu'un employé productif est un employé que l'on peut voir.

4) STRUCTURE : QN will have to abandon ONE'S long-cherished notion that a QN/QC is a QN/QC that V

5) EXEMPLE :  A - Ecologists will have to abandon their long-cherished notion that a safe policy is a policy that ignores technical progress.

                                           - " Do you think that man should go back to a purely natural life and reject a civilization that causes pollution"

                                           B - A lot of men will have to abandon their long-cherished notion that a good wife is a wife whose main task is to take care of her husband's comfort.

                                           - "Should home taking be the lot of women ?"

STRUCTURE N°6

1) TEXTE : The psychological impact of the collapse has been immense and explains why people will subject themselves to a killing routine like the trans-German commute.

2) ORIGINE :(May, 25, 1992): " Westward Ho! And Back Again", TIME, P.57

3) TRADUCTION : L'impact psychologique de cet impact a été immense et explique pourquoi les gens s'imposent cette routine mortelle que sont les trajets d'une Allemagne à une autre.

4) STRUCTURE : The impact of QC (on QC) has been immense and explain why PROPOSITION

5) EXEMPLE :  A -

                                           B -

STRUCTURE N°7

1) TEXTE : Ruptured relations in the workplace pose as serious a threat to U.S. businesses as global competition did two decades ago.

2) ORIGINE : LORD, MARY (January 14, 1991): "some firms cling to no-layoff policies - BUT RECESSION MAY FORCE A CHANGE", U.S. News & World Report

3) TRADUCTION : La rupture des relations sur le lieu de travail constitue, pour le monde des affaires américain, une menace aussi sérieuse que celle de la concurrence internationale vingt années en arrière.

4) STRUCTURE : QC pose as serious a threat to QN/QC as QC did CPT de TPS (durée) ago.

5) EXEMPLE :  A - North African Immigrants are said to pose as serious a threat to French society as Italian, Portuguese and Polish immigrants did several decades ago.

                                           - "To what extent do you think men are different as far as races are concerned ?"

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Examples

1 ADVOCATES OF ecology OFTEN FALL PREY TO THE TEMPTATION OF REFERRING TO Nature AS everyone's mother                   

14 ADVOCATES OF the English language OFTEN FALL PREY TO THE TEMPTATION OF REFERRING TO English AS the only international language                               

15 ADVOCATES OF public aid OFTEN FALL PREY TO THE TEMPTATION OF REFERRING TO public services AS the only ones deserving to be financially helped by the State.

16 ADVOCATES OF racism OFTEN FALL PREY TO THE TEMPTATION OF REFERRING TO their own race AS the very best one

17 ADVOCATES OF men's superiority OFTEN FALL PREY TO THE TEMPTATION OF REFERRING TO women as men's servants

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1. THE IMPACT OF last autumn floods HAS BEEN IMMENSE AND EXPLAINS WHY the French man in the street is becoming aware of the dangers of modern farming          

20 THE IMPACT OF the gulf war HAS BEEN IMMENSE AND EXPLAINS WHY people are getting suspicious about what they are told by the media

12 THE IMPACT OF what famous scientists have declared HAS BEEN IMMENSE AND EXPLAINS WHY fewer consumers are willing to eat any kind of food.

11 THE IMPACT OF MASSIVE lay-offs could BE IMMENSE AND EXPLAINS WHY trade-union representatives seem ready to agree to any compromise

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1 Ecologists WILL HAVE TO ABANDON THEIR LONG-CHERISHED NOTION THAT a safe policy IS A policy THAT ignores technical progress

17 A lot of men WILL HAVE TO ABANDON THEIR LONG-CHERISHED NOTION THAT a good wife IS a wife WHOSE main task is to   

take care of her husband's comfort

18 White Americans HAD TO ABANDON THEIR LONG-CHERISHED NOTION THAT black Americans were bound to have an inferior social status

19 Currently, sensible producers are beginning to abandon their LONG-CHERISHED NOTION THAT consumers can be made to buy anything.

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1 WHAT ARE THE MAIN CRITERIA WHEN buyING a "green" product? BESIDES THE BACKGROUND REASONS SUCH AS helping to protect nature THERE ARE OTHER FUNDAMENTALS

3 WHAT ARE THE MAIN CRITERIA WHEN designING a product? BESIDES THE BACKGROUND REASONS SUCH AS the need to make a profit, THERE ARE OTHER FUNDAMENTALS

4 WHAT ARE THE MAIN CRITERIA WHEN askING someone to do a job for you? BESIDES THE BACKGROUND REASONS SUCH AS the price, THERE ARE OTHER FUNDAMENTALS

13 WHAT ARE THE MAIN CRITERIA WHEN choosING a political career? BESIDES THE BACKGROUND REASONS SUCH AS the greed for power OR the strong desire to serve one's country, THERE ARE OTHER FUNDAMENTALS.

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1 A couple of decades ago,industrialists USED TO BE FAR MORE LIKELY TO dispose of their waste in rivers THAN protect nature.

3 In the fifties or sixties consumers USED TO BE FAR MORE LIKELY TO accept readily what they were proposed THAN choose in a sensible way.

4 In the days of full employment the authorities USED TO BE FAR MORE LIKELY TO condone moonlighting than to fight it

6 Thirty or forty years ago consumers USED TO BE FAR MORE LIKELY TO trust adverts THAN to criticize them

7 Motorists USED TO BE FAR MORE LIKELY TO agree to high petrol prices THAN accept to pay for the use of roads

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1.A large number of industrialists would like to SHUFFLE OFF ON TO the State THE BURDEN OF takING care of the environment

2.Some manufacturers may be tempted to SHUFFLE OFF ON TO robots and modern tools such as computers THE TASK OF makING decisions they are unable to make by themselves.

4. Moonlighting enables illegal employers to SHUFFLE OFF ON TO the social security system THE BURDEN OF takING care of their workers without having to pay.

5. Landlords are always willing to SHUFFLE OFF ON TO their tenants THE BURDEN OF maintainING their flats or houses

6. Unfortunately, a number of consumers are all too happy to SHUFFLE OFF ON TO advertisers THE RESPONSIBILITY OF choosING what they buy.

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1 AND THEREIN LIES THE CHALLENGE FACING the greens - HOW TO take part in governmental action WHILE remainING true to their basic ideas.

3 AND THEREIN LIES THE CHALLENGE FACING manufacturers - HOW TO increase profits WHILE keepING down production costs.

4 AND THEREIN LIES THE CHALLENGE FACING industrialized societies - HOW TO provide a stable and decent job to everyone WHILE avoidING inflation

9 AND THEREIN LIES THE CHALLENGE FACING today's managers - HOW TO increase the turnover WHILE takING into account social demands.